Saturn moon Enceladus may have salty ocean

Saturn moon Enceladus may have salty ocean

Thursday, June 23, 2011

NASA’s Cassini–Huygens spacecraft has discovered evidence for a large-scale saltwater reservoir beneath the icy crust of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. The data came from the spacecraft’s direct analysis of salt-rich ice grains close to the jets ejected from the moon. The study has been published in this week’s edition of the journal Nature.

Data from Cassini’s cosmic dust analyzer show the grains expelled from fissures, known as tiger stripes, are relatively small and usually low in salt far away from the moon. Closer to the moon’s surface, Cassini found that relatively large grains rich with sodium and potassium dominate the plumes. The salt-rich particles have an “ocean-like” composition and indicate that most, if not all, of the expelled ice and water vapor comes from the evaporation of liquid salt-water. When water freezes, the salt is squeezed out, leaving pure water ice behind.

Cassini’s ultraviolet imaging spectrograph also recently obtained complementary results that support the presence of a subsurface ocean. A team of Cassini researchers led by Candice Hansen of the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson, Arizona, measured gas shooting out of distinct jets originating in the moon’s south polar region at five to eight times the speed of sound, several times faster than previously measured. These observations of distinct jets, from a 2010 flyby, are consistent with results showing a difference in composition of ice grains close to the moon’s surface and those that made it out to the E ring, the outermost ring that gets its material primarily from Enceladean jets. If the plumes emanated from ice, they should have very little salt in them.

“There currently is no plausible way to produce a steady outflow of salt-rich grains from solid ice across all the tiger stripes other than salt water under Enceladus’s icy surface,” said Frank Postberg, a Cassini team scientist at the University of Heidelberg in Germany.

The data suggests a layer of water between the moon’s rocky core and its icy mantle, possibly as deep as about 50 miles (80 kilometers) beneath the surface. As this water washes against the rocks, it dissolves salt compounds and rises through fractures in the overlying ice to form reserves nearer the surface. If the outermost layer cracks open, the decrease in pressure from these reserves to space causes a plume to shoot out. Roughly 400 pounds (200 kilograms) of water vapor is lost every second in the plumes, with smaller amounts being lost as ice grains. The team calculates the water reserves must have large evaporating surfaces, or they would freeze easily and stop the plumes.

“We imagine that between the ice and the ice core there is an ocean of depth and this is somehow connected to the surface reservoir,” added Postberg.

The Cassini mission discovered Enceladus’ water-vapor and ice jets in 2005. In 2009, scientists working with the cosmic dust analyzer examined some sodium salts found in ice grains of Saturn’s E ring but the link to subsurface salt water was not definitive. The new paper analyzes three Enceladus flybys in 2008 and 2009 with the same instrument, focusing on the composition of freshly ejected plume grains. In 2008, Cassini discovered a high “density of volatile gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, as well as organic materials, some 20 times denser than expected” in geysers erupting from the moon. The icy particles hit the detector target at speeds between 15,000 and 39,000 MPH (23,000 and 63,000 KPH), vaporizing instantly. Electrical fields inside the cosmic dust analyzer separated the various constituents of the impact cloud.

“Enceladus has got warmth, water and organic chemicals, some of the essential building blocks needed for life,” said Dennis Matson in 2008, Cassini project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

“This finding is a crucial new piece of evidence showing that environmental conditions favorable to the emergence of life can be sustained on icy bodies orbiting gas giant planets,” said Nicolas Altobelli, the European Space Agency’s project scientist for Cassini.

“If there is water in such an unexpected place, it leaves possibility for the rest of the universe,” said Postberg.

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Black And Tan Coonhound Facts You Must Know Before Adopting Black And Tan Coonhound

Black and Tan Coonhound – Facts You Must Know Before Adopting Black and Tan Coonhound



Do you have a new puppy? Are you in need of puppy training tips? Here are the basics on how to begin training a new puppy.

A cross between Bloodhound and Black And Tan Virginia Foxhound, the Black And Tan Coonhound is bred primarily for trailing and treeing raccoons. This breed is a scent hound, making them excellent in hunting deer, bears, cougars, and so on. This breed weighs an average between 55-75 pounds, and stands between 23-27 inches.


The coat of a Black and Tan Coonhound is short and dense. Coat colors other than black and tan are not acceptable.


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The Black and Tan Coonhound needs a substantial amount of activity and a securely fenced yard. They are highly active requiring a wide space and will appreciate living on a farm. Vigorous daily exercise including a long walk on a daily basis is a necessity. They do best in an active family, with a work to do.


The Black and Tan Coonhound is highly devoted and energetic that makes a great watch dog. This breed is very safe to have around. They are naturally not aggressive, and is mostly gentle, tolerant, independent, although may be stubborn at times. Highly sociable, this dog takes pleasure in the company of humans and other dogs.

Because of the Coonhound’s stamina, they may be unfit as a household pet unless with a great deal of activity and enough space to roam in is provided.


The Black and Tan Coonhound is a large and powerful dog that is known to be a trail and tree worker. The general notion of this breed is power, alertness, and agility with the capability to cover ground quickly with robust cadenced treads.


Coats of this breed needs occasional brushing, constantly checking the ears and eyes to avoid infection. Bathing should be done only when necessary. The Black and Tan Coonhounds tend to drool so constant wiping of their face is advised. They are known to be prone to hip dysplasia, PRA, Hemophilia B, and ear cankers.


The Black and Tan Coonhounds are reputed to be difficult to train. But, if you do it the right way, coonhounds are not as hard to train as some think. Patience is imperative for this breed. Any form of negativity such as physical punishment to push them into learning will only confuse this breed since they do not know what they are doing wrong. Most of this breed is food oriented, with the willingness to do anything for a reward.

The Black and Tan Coonhounds are recommended for an experienced owner. Some of these dogs may become a problem if not provided with enough exercise and proper training. Due to their social and affectionate personality, if proper training is not given to this coonhound, they will tend to jump up at any scent they may be enticed to leap at.


An expert hunter and a placid breed, the Black and Tan Coonhound is the most capable dog with the almost uncanny ability to adapt. This breed copes with harsh winter climates as well as the tropics. Although they may be happy as a family dog, this breed is happiest when given a job to work on.

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Study finds Pfizer, AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines effective against Indian variant of coronavirus

Study finds Pfizer, AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines effective against Indian variant of coronavirus

Sunday, May 23, 2021

A study by Public Health England (PHE), conducted between April 5 and May 16, found today the Pfizer- and AstraZeneca- made COVID-19 vaccines are effective against the B.1.617.2 variant of the coronavirus, first identified in India, offering a similar level of defence as against Lineage B.1.1.7, first identified in Kent, England.

Two doses of the Pfizer vaccine was, two weeks later, 88% effective in stopping symptomatic disease arising from the India variant and 93% against the Kent variant. Two doses of the AstraZeneca jab was 60% effective against the India variant and 66% against the Kent variant. However, after one dose of either, both vaccines were 33% effective against the India variant, compared to 50% against the Kent variant. PHE expects even higher rates of efficacy relating to hospital admissions and deaths, and both Sky News and The Guardian have indicated there is data suggesting it takes a longer time for the AstraZeneca jab to reach peak effectiveness.

The study’s analysis included 12,675 genomic-sequenced cases from all age groups and of several ethnicities: 11,621 of the Kent variant and 1,054 of the India variant. Head of immunisation at PHE Dr Mary Ramsay said the findings “[provide] reassurance that two doses of either vaccine offer high levels of protection against symptomatic disease from the B.1.617.2 variant”. The study said the “[n]umbers of cases and follow-up periods are currently insufficient to estimate effectiveness against severe disease, including hospitalisation and mortality”. It has nonetheless concluded that, while there was “an absolute reduction of one dose vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic disease with the B.1.617.2 variant of approximately 20% when compared to the B.1.1.7 variant”, “reductions in vaccine effectiveness after two doses were very small.”

PHE has said the difference in efficacy figures between the second dose of vaccines could be due to the slower rollout of the AstraZeneca jab, which was approved for use in the UK nearly a month after the Pfizer one.

The study, which is not peer-reviewed, comes ahead of UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s plan to ease COVID-19 lockdown restrictions in England by June 21. Johnson indicated May 14 the India variant “could pose a serious disruption to our progress”. Strategic COVID-19 response director at PHE Dr Susan Hopkins said “[w]e have now got early evidence that the vaccine protects” against the India variant, but that it was “too early to say” whether the reopening plans would be disrupted. She also said the trend indicated by the data was “quite clear”, and in the “right direction”.

The study’s lead author and consultant medical epidemiologist at PHE Dr Jamie Lopez Bernal says there is more confidence in data relating to the first dose than that from the second because “[t]here are bigger numbers that have been vaccinated with one dose.” He concluded “we classify that as moderate certainty around the first dose, but low levels of confidence around the second dose.”

Health Secretary of the United Kingdom Matt Hancock was encouraged by the findings, saying, according to a government press release, “[w]e can now be confident that over 20 million people – more than one in three – have significant protection against this new variant” against the India variant, and calling the study’s findings “groundbreaking”. He went on to encourage everyone, according to The Guardian, to get the jab.

Official government data says over 37 million Britons have received their first dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, and over 22 million their second, crossing a milestone of over 50 million doses. Another study from the PHE has said immunisations have prevented, from up to May 9, 13 thousand deaths and 39,100 hospital admissions among older people in England.


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Fußball-Bundesliga 2007–08: Borussia Dortmund vs. Bayern Munich

Fußball-Bundesliga 2007–08: Borussia Dortmund vs. Bayern Munich

Sunday, October 28, 2007

October 28, 200717:00 (UTC+1)
Borussia Dortmund 0–0 Bayern Munich Signal Iduna Park, Dortmund Attendance: 80,708 Referee: Markus Merk
Tinga 45’Valdez 61’Valdez 79’Federico 79’Blaszczykowski 83’Klimowicz 83’Klimowicz 90’+1′ Match Report 66′ Sosa 66′ Altintop 70′ Toni 70′ Podolski 88′ van Bommel 88′ Ottl 90’+1′ Schweinsteiger

Bayern Munich remained undefeated in all competitions after a 0-0 draw against Borussia Dortmund. The draw leaves Bayern at the top of the table with 27 points. However, the lead is down to four points after Hamburg’s 1-0 win against Duisburg.

Franck Ribery didn’t pass a late fitness test and didn’t make the 18-man strong matchday squad. Luca Toni, Martin Demichelis an Jose Ernesto Sosa replaced Lukas Podolski, Philipp Lahm and Hamit Altintop. Jose Ernesto Sosa returned after being sidelined for almost two months after ankle surgery.

Bayern Munich and Borussia Dortmund exchanged plenty of chances and almost had a 50/50 possession between them.

Bayern Munich plays Borussia Mönchengladbach at home in the DFB Cup while Borussia Dortmund plays Eintracht Frankfurt in the same competition.

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Edmund White on writing, incest, life and Larry Kramer

Edmund White on writing, incest, life and Larry Kramer

Thursday, November 8, 2007

What you are about to read is an American life as lived by renowned author Edmund White. His life has been a crossroads, the fulcrum of high-brow Classicism and low-brow Brett Easton Ellisism. It is not for the faint. He has been the toast of the literary elite in New York, London and Paris, befriending artistic luminaries such as Salman Rushdie and Sir Ian McKellen while writing about a family where he was jealous his sister was having sex with his father as he fought off his mother’s amorous pursuit.

The fact is, Edmund White exists. His life exists. To the casual reader, they may find it disquieting that someone like his father existed in 1950’s America and that White’s work is the progeny of his intimate effort to understand his own experience.

Wikinews reporter David Shankbone understood that an interview with Edmund White, who is professor of creative writing at Princeton University, who wrote the seminal biography of Jean Genet, and who no longer can keep track of how many sex partners he has encountered, meant nothing would be off limits. Nothing was. Late in the interview they were joined by his partner Michael Caroll, who discussed White’s enduring feud with influential writer and activist Larry Kramer.

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How To Budget For The New Year?}

Submitted by: Paul Selibio

Budgeting has always been a smart thing to do every year. In fact, budgeting is very important to properly carry out good financial strategy for the whole year. But the truth is, even how careful we are in budgeting there will be times when we will experience lack of cash for much needed spending. No need to worry you can have quick cash for emergencies from payday loan.

Here are some tips you may consider when budgeting for the next year:

Assess your income. What is there to budget if you have no source of income? Evaluate how much you earn and work out a budget according to your income. If at times you do not have cash to get help you get by until the next payday, know that you can have quick cash for emergencies from payday loan. Payday loans can help you a lot.

List all the expenses. By identifying all your expenses, you will be able to determine how much to allocate for the expenses. Many only budget for fixed expenses but rarely anticipate. Also allocate for emergencies. Some of those who dont anticipate emergency expenses found help through quick cash for emergencies from payday loan.

Make a realistic budget. This means pricing your budget items according to the real price. Allocate the highest approximate of the cost. But in any case where your budget falls short, there is quick cash for emergencies from payday loan.

Stick to your budget. Budgeting is simple; sticking to the budget is hard. As much as possible, live within your budget. But in times of needs, you can count on quick cash for emergencies from payday loan. Sometimes, we really do forget to include important times on our budget.

Flexible budget. Sometimes you have to make your budget flexible. How? For instance you have applied for quick cash for emergencies from payday loan. You have to allocate some part of your budget for its payment.

Always remember that for a healthy state of finances for the New Year, it is important to have a budget. You can never go wrong with a realistic budget, well except if you dont stick with it. In those times when you need the cash the most and not having money allocated for it, you can get quick cash for emergencies from payday loan.

About the Author: Paul Selibio is content writer and blogger for Extreme Pay (

). Search the Web for more of his work.


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Baltimore Ravens’ Deion Sanders announces retirement

Baltimore Ravens’ Deion Sanders announces retirement

Thursday, February 16, 2006

On February 13, Baltimore Ravens cornerback Deion Sanders announced his re-retirement from the NFL. Last January, many assumed Sanders would be leaving the league after spending 14 years in it.

Sanders won back-to-back Super Bowls with the San Francisco 49ers and Dallas Cowboys. Sanders is the first professional athlete to win a World Series and Super Bowl in his pro career. The All-Pro Cornerback had 53 interceptions, was selected to the Pro Bowl eight times and was once Defensive Player of the Year.

Reports speculate Sanders, who broadcast with CBS after his first retirement, may go back into news broadcasting, possibly on the [w:Fox Broadcasting Company|Fox]] NFL Pre-Game Show.

After his retirement, current Ravens Cornerback Chris McAlister stated, “I’ll miss Deion, just as the rest of the Ravens organization will. I learned a lot from him.”

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Manitoba volunteers go to war against Red River flooding

Manitoba volunteers go to war against Red River flooding

Monday, April 6, 2009

Over 1,600 volunteers registered to help build approximately 65,000 of the 500,000 sandbags to create dikes 20.5 feet (6.2 meters) high to protect the City of Winnipeg, Manitoba in the war against the Red River of the North flood.

700 volunteers answered at the rural municipality of St. Andrews alone. Once sandbags are filled for West St. Paul, St. Andrews, and Selkirk, then frozen culverts must be cleared.

The height of the river is expected to be Thursday, and predictions are that it will be less than Flood of the Century of 1997. There is no precipitation in the forecast, and snow in the province should be melted by the end of the week.

“The fear right now is we have to get that ice out of the river. The Amphibex [Excavators] are still working and breaking the ice apart, and everyday we buy with the warm weather and the current, it is thinning the ice down a bit, so when it does start to move, the better chance it’ll move right out into the lake,” said Paul Guyder, the emergency coordinator for the RMs of St. Andrews and St. Clements.

“I feel that we’ve done everything humanly possible to get ready,” said Gary Doer, Premier of Manitoba, “But … there are fallibilities with human behaviour. We can take every preventative measure as human beings possible and we can still get Mother Nature proving again she is superior.”

Communities with ring diking will partially or fully close their dikes at the beginning of the week. Provincial officials are considering opening the Red River Floodway gates around mid-week before ice is fully melted.

Ice jams could cause flooding within the city, however opening the gates could spare neighbourhood flooding when the river rises to the estimated 6.3 meters (20.7 feet) height. The province does have back up plans for dealing with ice jams within the city if they do occur. The unpredictability of ice jams and the ensuing water level rise may cause neighbourhood flooding. The city is raising dikes where the river has jammed with ice in the past such as on tight curves and past bridges. Likewise there are excavators and backhoes positioned at these points.

Vulnerable neighbourhoods on the river banks have been reinforced with sandbag dikes at vulnerable areas from the massive volunteer effort over the weekend. Guyader feels no more extra volunteers are needed, however volunteers are still being asked to leave their names and number in case of unpredicted need. Existing personnel will assess roads, and help with clean up.

Approximately 400 of the 800 people who evacuated the Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation have returned to their homes.

Former Premier, Dufferin Roblin, brought forward the floodway as a protection for Winnipeg residents and economy following the 1950 Red River Flood. The Red River floodway, “Duff’s Ditch” was finally finished in 1968, and its floodway gates have been opened 20 times saving Winnipeg from an estimated CA$10 billion in damages. The floodway expansion began in 2005 at a price of $665 million.

Polish and Chinese experts have come to survey the Red River Floodway, and Dennis Walaker, mayor of Fargo, North Dakota recognises the need for Red River flood defences down river. “Every town that you drive by from the Canadian line up to Winnipeg is either elevated or ring-diked,” said Walaker.

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Toronto Comicon 2019 welcomes fans with celebrities, creativity, cosplay

Toronto Comicon 2019 welcomes fans with celebrities, creativity, cosplay

Friday, March 29, 2019Toronto Comicon 2019 returned to its titular city from March 15 to 17, as one of the largest pop culture events in Canada. The popular event featured celebrity guests like actors Dan Fogler, Ron Perlman, John De Lancie, John Rhys-Davies, and Jaleel White, as well as comic artists, authors, and professional cosplayers. The event included a large show floor with hundreds of retailers and artists promoting their creations. Wikinews’ Nicholas Moreau attended the event, taking photos of the various sights.

John Rhys-Davies broke news when he revealed that a Sliders reboot is being considered. “Jerry [O’Connell] and I are talking to NBC at the moment. The basic problem is that no one knows who owns the rights”. Their legal department had apparently been looking into the matter for two months, as of the convention weekend. Emma Caufield talked of being cast in an NBC television pilot while a recurring guest actor on Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Faced with loosing the character of Anya Jenkins, the producers finally committed to making her a regular. “It was a good day,” she recalls.

Special effects costumer Ian Campbell, whose screen credits include Star Trek: Discovery, had a booth at the convention displaying his prop replicas and cosplay items. Amidst the bustle of activity, Campbell was working on a Thanos helmet sculpt. After the convention, he told Wikinews that “it can be tough to maintain focus with so many people streaming past and along questions, but sculpting in front of a crowd at conventions is great because it allows people to see the process that goes into what I do […] it also can serve as inspiration to other to pursue their own artistic endeavors.”

Lisa Mancini has been cosplaying for two years, her “passion” for the hobby “stemmed through my love for Halloween.” She typically chooses “to portray beloved characters from childhood or strong females. I also enjoy a good gender bent cosplay to ensure a touch of uniqueness!”

Mancini told Wikinews after the event that the best part of cosplay is “bringing a character to life.” One of the characters she took on this year was Squirrel Girl, a Marvel Comics character. Mancini has been described by the Daily Hive as a “squirrel whisperer”, for the close affinity some of the animals have for her.

Stephanie Chapman has knit a variety of knit outfits, an uncommon technique for cosplay. Prompted by Ron Perlman’s visit, she wore a costume based on Hellboy character Abe Sapien, which lacks the eyeholes of her normal masks. With “Abe, I wanted to go for accuracy over comfort,” Chapman told Wikinews, a choice leaving her largely helpless without a handler. The costume “is very warm […] so I have to stay hydrated and try to keep as calm as possible. It’s just really hard to stay calm when I meet someone like Ron Perlman”. With the combination of excitement and “the stress I’m putting on my body”, she shared that she was prone to meltdown in suit.

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The Duties Of A Security Officer


As a security officer, it is your job to protect your employer’s building and other property. Security officers and guards work in many settings-;universities, banks, museums and other public buildings are all guarded. If you are considering becoming a security officer, read further for tips on what to expect.

Job Duties of Security OfficersYour daily job description depends on the type of facility which you’ll be protecting, be it an apartment complex, hospital or retail outlet, and whether you’re a stationary or mobile guard. In general, you’ll be responsible for the enforcement of rules, upholding public safety and responding to security issues. Your duties fall into three main categories: communication, response and prevention, which are described in greater detail below.

CommunicationTo be effective, Security Officers Kansas City must be able to communicate with citizens. For instance, you may have to help someone in trouble, offer directions to someone who’s lost, or render first aid to someone who’s hurt. Depending on your facility, you may be charged with checking people in and out of the building and searching them for dangerous or illicit objects.

ResponseYour responsibilities and duties during an incident may vary depending on whether you’re allowed to carry a weapon, and on state licensure laws. You might be asked to remove a disruptive person from the building, manage a crowd, or sweep for intruders. If you are guarding by yourself, you’ll likely handle other problems such as medical emergencies and fires by notifying the appropriate service and helping to contain the problem to the best of your ability.

PreventionYour presence may deter petty crimes such as assault, vandalism and theft. As a security officer, you will patrol the entire premises, watching for anyone behaving unusually or causing a security issue. You may also be assigned to a specific post, where you will watch security monitors; if you are protecting a closed facility, you might need a key card to prove that you’ve checked key areas, and you’re likely to be asked for a written report at the end of each shift.

Those wanting to become Security Officers Kansas City will need a high-school diploma or its equivalent, but in some cases you may need to pass an exam, complete training and submit to drug screens and background checks. Some employers seek applicants with prior military or law enforcement experience, but most offer on the job training to qualified people.

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